Overview of knowledge management information system questions

1th chapter information system overview 1. information and information systems (memorize) 1.1 information 2004-4-11 information is the essence of the meaning of the information – the leading resource full play to the role of the social, and diffusion of information technology is the means, the real use of information is the goal, information is the process of achieving the end.
Define data 1.2 information and data: records can be identified by the symbol, it has no meaning in itself.
Information: the interpretation of the data, data is still data, only after the explanation makes sense to become information.
1.3 information characteristics of objectivity, timeliness, incompleteness, value, rank (strategies, strategic level, job level) 1.4 Overview of system and information system: in order to achieve a certain purpose for a group of units make regular arrangements, making it an associated entity.
Information system: is an artificial system, which consists of people, computer hardware, software and data resources in order to correctly and timely collection, processing, storage, transmission and delivery of information required for decision-making, implementation management, regulation, and control activities in the organization.
Information systems include: type of information processing system, information transmission system 1.5 information systems operations information systems: business process systems, process control systems and office automation system is composed of three parts.
Management information systems: including information systems, decision support systems, Executive information systems.
2. Management and decision making (to remember) 2.1 management management: is the need of people working together, is to reach a certain goal and take a variety of forms, methods, means of human, physical, financial, planning, organizing, leading and controlling the General term for a range of activities.
"Management's mission is to develop and implement the Organization's goals, achieved good results in benefits. "
2.2 management of four basic functions: plans functions, and organization functions, and led functions, and control functions 2.3 management system of three a level: strategy management, and management control, and job management 2.4 decision of defined: decision: is people for reached must purpose and for of has consciousness, and has select of activities 2.5 decision process of four a stage: intelligence activities stage, and design activities stage, and select activities stage, and implementation activities stage 2.6 decision scientific of development direction 1) with information system support and auxiliary decision 2) Qualitative decision to quantitative and qualitative phase combined of decision development 3) single target decision to more target integrated decision development 4) strategy decision to more far of future decision development 2.7 different management level of different structure of degree of decision problem 1) structure of decision problem: simple, and directly, has fixed law can through, can with clear of language and model be description, can according to must of general model and decision rules achieved its decision process of Basic Automation; 2) non-structure of decision problem: complex, and no fixed law can through, No fixed rules and general model to follow, head of policy makers have a considerable influence on the results of each stage 3) semi-structured decision-making problems: falls somewhere in between the two, unable to determine the optimal plan.
2.8 the different needs of different types of decision making on information 1) structured decision making problem: required information is statistical in nature, most of the data from within the Organization, and has taught high-precision; 2) unstructured decision problems: required information is generally predictive of, and most of them from the outside world, do not have the detailed content and a high degree of structure.
2.9 people's important role in information processing 1) to fuzzy reasoning based on experience and extensive knowledge; 2) good at dealing with all kinds of people-related issues.
3. information systems for management support functions (memory) functions 1 3.1 shows areas in which information systems support program) to support statistical analysis; 2) support forecast; 3) supports the scheduling of trial work; 4) support program data access; 5) optimization of support programs.
3.2 the concept of prediction and its relationship to the plan forecasts: forecast is the basis of planning, is the estimate of future State expertise, its basic principle is to analyze data through a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods, finding development regularity of interactions between various factors in the process.
Prediction is the basis of the plan.
3.3 planning importance of using computers without computer support, not only work, but will affect the planning staff to engage in planning initiative.
3.4 cited the example of information system support program optimization such as: under the current conditions, how to mix production products to obtain maximum profits (linear programming).
3.5 human resources organizational aspects of information systems support the Organization's functions: post management, personnel information system, personnel training, recruitment and distribution subsystem, the subsystem; organizational aspects of the work: mainly clear organizational processes.
3.6 cite examples of information systems support business process reengineering: business management through business process re-engineering, achieve the business collaborative processing of database operations, eliminate document delivery delays, greatly improving the efficiency of the whole process.
3.7 support leading functions have several features of information systems decision support systems: data, models, and good interface supports semi-structured and unstructured decisions Manager support system: focuses on the information needs of senior management, auxiliary enterprises leading to unstructured problems making decisions, managers can get a lot of trailing data.
3.8 cited three levels of support for management information system in enterprise management control example 1) supports job control, such as inventory control, financial control, etc; 2) support on the level of management control, such as: production planning and implementation of the results of the report; 3) supports strategic planning and control, such as: analysis of historical data, to forecast future capacity.
4. stage of development of the information system (memory) 4.1 information systems development phase 1) electronic data processing system (1953~1960) 2) information reporting system (1961~1970) 3), decision support systems (DSS) (1970~1980) 4) 4.2 information reporting system for the further development of the information system of characteristic types and features: according to specified requirements to provide management reports to support decision-making. Also cannot effectively support decision-making, not known as a sound management information system.
Category: production reporting system, service system status reporting system, the State of research reports.
4.3 early does not provide the reason for the failure is not due to the management information system system information is a result of management information systems provide a lot of information is not the Manager decision required.
The 2nd chapter data organization and data processing 1. concepts of data processing (memorize) 1.1 purpose of the data processing 1) converted to observation and analysis, data transmission or further processing in the form of 2) data into useful data to the correct decisions; 3) Edit and store data for later use.
1.2 processing of basic data collection, data conversion, data filtering, grouping and sorting, data organization, data computation, data storage, data retrieval, data output.
2. data organization concepts (simple) 2.1 structure of two forms of memory structures, memory structure 2.2 four levels of organization data 2.3 data, records, files, database, records, identification of key concepts, files, databases, and other data: describes some of the properties of a data object. Fields corresponding to the concept.
Records are a collection of data about public signs.
Primary key: is used to uniquely mark a record identifier.
Identification key: main keys and sub keys collectively, its function is to identify and search for records.
File: for the purposes of a particular form of a collection of related records. (For example: input file, the report file) database is now stands at the highest level in the data hierarchy.
2.4 construction tape data storage medium: it is a belt of plastic coated with magnetic material, there are multiple parallel tracks, with each point representing a binary.
Disk: cylinders x x track sectors 3. organize physical and logical organization of data (simple) 3.1 the concept of logical and physical records and their difference between logical record: is data in the way before the user or application programmer-users on how the data is marked.
Physical records: is and how substantial storage to disk on a logical record.
3.2 physical organization of data and features two basic forms 1) sequence data 2) 3.3 data logical organization of direct data organization concepts the logical organization of data: refers to the related record is logically arranged.

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